Saturday, September 23, 2023


Q-switching can swiftly change between creating very little or extremely high losses to the laser beam of light. This tool is typically utilized in laser resonators to enable energetic Q-switching of lasers, producing short, extreme pulses with pulse lengths in the nanosecond range. The Q-switch can also be combined with the tilt dental caries to create pulses, however, the optical switch’s details demands are also various.

Acousto-optic Q-switch

The most usual sort of Q-switch is the acousto-optic modulator. As long as the acoustic wave is switched off, the transmission loss brought on by the crystal or glass sheet is really tiny, but when the acoustic wave is switched on, the crystal or glass will certainly create a strong Bragg representation, and also the loss created by each pass has to do with 50%. Generates 75% loss. To generate acoustic waves, a digital vehicle driver calls for RF power at 1W (or a number of watts in big aperture gadgets) and microwave frequency (RF) at 100MHz.

Numerous parameters need to be compromised in the tool. For instance, a tellurium dioxide product with a really high electro-optic coefficient requires extremely little acoustic power but has a modest damage threshold. Crystalline quartz or merged silica can deal with high light intensities yet call for greater acoustic power (and RF power). The call for acoustic power is likewise connected to the gadget’s aperture: high-power lasers need big aperture devices, which additionally require greater acoustic power. The Q switch generates a great deal of warmth, so a water-cooling device is required. At lower power levels, just transmission cooling is called for.

The switching speed (or modulation data transfer) is eventually not restricted by the acousto-optic transducer but by the acoustic wave rate and also the beam of light size.
To suppress representations from optical surface areas, anti-reflection finishings are frequently called for. There are additionally Q-switched energetic gadgets operating at Brewster’s Factor.


Tellurium dioxide (TeO2) crystal is an acousto-optic crystal with a high-grade factor and a neutrino detection crystal with dual beta degeneration attributes. Given that the natural wealth of 130Te is 33.8%, it does not require to be concentrated, and also the cost is reduced, so TeO2 crystal becomes the first choice for the double beta decay source.

Electro-optical Q-switching

Electro-optical Q-switch is a type of Q-switch, also known as Pockels cells as well as electro-optical inflection cells.

It is a little more complicated in the framework, needing a high-voltage (4000V) circuit plus a high-speed back-voltage circuit. The resulting power of electro-optical Q-switching is larger, getting to tens of megawatts, as well as the pulse size can be compressed to regarding 10ns. On high-power lasers, electro-optical Q-switching is usually used. Generally, for high-performance lasers, electro-optical Q-switching is chosen. Additionally, because of the versatile control of electro-optical Q-switching, it is made used of in single-pulse lasers.

Q-switched microchip lasers require very high changing rates, which call for electro-optic modulators. Amongst them, the polarization state of light is altered by the acousto-optic effect (Pockels impact). Then the polarization state adjustment is exchanged loss modulation by utilizing a polarizer. Compared with acousto-optic gadgets, it calls for higher voltage (requirement to get nanosecond changing rate) but no RF signal.


LGS (La3Ga5SiO14) is a multifunctional crystal trigonal system and also belongs to the exact same 32-point team as quartz. It has 2 independent electro-optic coefficients equivalent to those of BBO crystals. LGS crystals have good temperature level stability, moderate light damage threshold, and also mechanical toughness. Its half-wave voltage is reasonably high however can be changed by the element ratio. Therefore, LGS can be made used as a brand-new electro-optical crystal, which can supplement the deficiencies of DKDP as well as LN crystals, and also is suitable for making Q-switches for medium-power pulsed lasers and various other electro-optical tools.

Passive Q-switching

Passive switches are saturable absorbers caused by the laser itself. Amongst them, the loss introduced by the Q-switch itself is really tiny. When enough power is saved in the gain medium, the laser gain will be higher than the loss. The laser power starts to increase slowly, and also once the absorber gets to saturation, the losses lower the net gain rises, as well as the laser power raises quickly to form brief pulses.

Cr4+: YAG crystals are generally made use of as passive Q-switches in passive Q-switched YAG lasers. Other materials are readily available, such as doped crystals and glasses, as well as semiconductor-saturable absorption mirrors are especially suitable for generating tiny pulse powers.

Co: Spinel

Co: Spinel crystal is a freshly created material with an emission wavelength of 1.2-1.6 μm, which has actually been confirmed to be an extremely effective passive Q-switch. It is extensively used in eye-safe Er: glass lasers (1.54 µm) as well as is verified on lasers with wavelengths of 1.44 µm and 1.34 µm. Carbon Monoxide: MgAl2O4 (Co: spinel) has a high absorption cross-section, which makes it possible for Q-switching of Er: glass lasers (flash as well as diode laser pumped) without intracavity concentrating, overlooking excited-state absorption, leading to high Q-switching comparison, That is, the proportion of the first to saturable absorption signal is greater than 10.


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