Er: YAG laser is a brand-new type of laser in the 1980s. When the doping concentration is high, the laser can acquire a result of 2.94 μm. Since the laser has a wavelength of 2.94 um, right at the absorption peak of water, it can be highly soaked up by water molecules. The mass fraction of water in biological cells and also cells are generally more than 70 percent.
Consequently, a 2.94 μm laser is a suitable option for laser biology applications. Utilizing this band of laser can likewise avoid the devastation of various other molecular bonds in the cell and does not have large thermal damage like carbon dioxide laser; On top of that, the passing through the depth of erbium laser in biological cells is really shallow, and also its mechanical and also thermal damage to the body is really small. As a result, the application and also development of Er: YAG laser have actually been paid much attention in clinical circles in your home and abroad recently.
Er: YAG crystal
The laser mechanism of Er: YAG is relatively complex but can recognize under certain problems because of various power transfers.
2.94 μm laser outcome. Its macro features are little one-way gain, high limit, as well as hard attain continual outcomes; Nonetheless, as a result of the high doping concentration, it is hard to create saturation so that it can acquire the laser pulse with large power.
Er3+: YAG crystal comes from the cubic crystal system, a promising strong laser material in the mid-infrared band, which can outcome laser of three wavelengths at area temperature levels: 1.64 μm, 1.78 μm and 2.94 μm, among which 1.64 μm and 1.78 μm remain in the safe band of human eyes, 2.94 μm is in the hydroxyl absorption optimal and can be strongly taken in by biological cells, so it has an excellent application possibility in laser medicine, laser communication, laser distance dimension, etc application
The resulting wavelength of Er: YAG laser is 2.94 μm, which is specifically constant with the height of the water absorption range, as well as the absorption coefficient is 13000cm-1, which is the highest possible amongst existing clinical lasers. It is a type of laser easily taken in by water molecules and can attain a wonderful impact with small energy.
The optical infiltration depth corresponding to the absorption coefficient is 1μm; compared with other clinical lasers, the penetration depth is extremely superficial. This advantage is unparalleled to various other wavelengths as well as can be used to carry out accurate cutting and soft cell excision surgery. Therefore, it is suitable for precision medical areas such as ophthalmology and blood vessel.
Er: YAG laser in cosmetic surgery, bone and also tooth cutting as well as other applications have actually drawn in much interest.
In addition, Er: YAG laser is a really safe and functional laser resource for medical usage because the damage to water-bearing cells is mechanical damage caused by water dissipation, which does not leave burn marks, nor does it have the possible risk of gene mutation triggered by damages to cell DNA similar to the excimer laser.
In recent times, the application of erbium-doped YAG laser in the medical area has actually been paid an increasing number of focus. With the maturity of Q-switching technology, the difficulty of Q-switching of Er: YAG laser has actually relapsed, and also the modulated 2.94 μm Er: YAG laser, the pulse width is considerably reduced, the peak power is also enhanced, which even more decreases the mechanical damage to the irradiated object surface area, and also the thermal damages is practically absolutely no. The side of the pulse trauma point is smooth, which is very appropriate for various precision clinical fields.
Amongst all types of wavelength lasers, Er: YAG laser in the mid-infrared band has a wavelength of 2940nm, which occurs to be near the height of the water absorption curve as well as the second peak of the hydroxyapatite absorption curve. It is very easy to be absorbed by water and hydroxyapatite, as well as especially easy to be taken in by water to generate high power.
Consequently, it can act upon soft and also hard cells with various water materials to generate cutting, ablating as well as grinding effects and also eliminate all types of bacteria in the cells at the same time. Therefore, it is a multi-functional laser widely utilized in various professional subspecialties of the oral cavity. On top of that, Er: YAG laser has the shallowest tissue infiltration depth, only 2μm in soft tissue, 5μm in enamel, and also 7μm in dentin, which has the advantages of accurate treatment as well as minimal cells damages in clinical application.
At the same time, the water cooling style makes the temperature level increase caused by Er: YAG laser irradiation of soft and tough cells surface area no more than 5 ℃, practically no thermal damage, so the tissue reaction after therapy is slight, quick recovery, really ideal for dental minimally invasive treatment.
The 2.94 μm laser emphasis interacts with water-saturated biological tissue. It is equivalent to immediate heating of a limited volume in which the pressure rises as well as product (such as blood) flows out of the laceration without clotting, a fancy some surgeries. However, it was this characteristic that caused the development of the laser blood sampler. The effect is good. The discomfort is smaller than in acupuncture blood collection. The wound location is smaller, the recovery is quick, no infection.